How to Get Full Marks in Business Questions

Tim Woods IB Business Leave a Comment

I teach IB Business and Management. It’s one of the hardest IB subjects to score a full 7 in. Actually doing that might be impossible if you don’t follow an appropriate method for answering the long-answer questions.

Every year I hear from students struggling with this.

My passion is making this kind of almost-impossible thing completely doable. My students deserve that. Developing and sharing these kinds of efficient and effective approaches is what The Method is all about. So far I’ve tackled the TOK presentations and essays, the the Economics essay questions and the IA’s, and in Business I’ve looked at the EE’s and IA’s. (For a complete list, see the Resources link at the top). But the Business long-answer questions are especially hard. There are just so many different types of questions you can be asked. Businesses have a lot of moving parts. They’re extremely complex.

In a business question you can be asked almost anything about a business. And you’re expected to apply the relevant concepts from a very long textbook. The one I use is 673 pages long! Not easy my friend.

But let’s break it down. In this situation you need to do 3 things quickly:

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Tim WoodsHow to Get Full Marks in Business Questions

How to Structure a Theory of Knowledge Presentation

Tim Woods TOK 28 Comments

The following TOK presentation structure has been designed very carefully. (It’s taken about 2 years of conversations!) It’s easy for you to follow and ticks all the boxes. It tells you how many slides to have (eight), what text should go on each slide and what you should talk about while each slide is up. A clear structure like this is essential because it helps the audience follow what you’re saying. It also keeps you from wasting time, both during your presentation and in your preparation phase. (This is also done for the TOK essay, here).

There are a few things I need to go over before we get into the slides.

The Development Section

When you get into the Development section (where the knowledge question is explored and analysed with reference to the AOKs and WOKs), you’ll see that we use a Claim, Counterclaim, Mini-Conclusion structure. We do this (claim, counterclaim, mini-conclusion) for each of your developments (AOKs or WOKs), so we do it 3 times in total.

Here’s an example, for one of your developments:

-Your claim might be that all art is ethical and you show this using some theory (evidence) from the course.

-Your counterclaim is a problem (a limitation) with your claim, or an opposing idea in the same perspective. It might be that art can be viewed in a different way, which would show it to be unethical. You show this using (as evidence) an example from your own life experience or knowledge referenced material or material studied in some other theory from the course.

-And then, in the mini-conclusion, you basically have to find a way to draw together the two opposing sides. You have to somehow synthesise these two insights to arrive at a more insightful understanding or some kind of summary. So you might say that art can be both ethical and unethical at the same time, depending on the perspective taken and then explain how that might be true. So the MC is a possible conclusion to your KQ (Knowledge Question).

In the final conclusion of the presentation you will try to combine (draw together/synthesise) the insights of this mini-conclusion as well as the other ones (from the 2 other development sections) to show a really sophisticated/developed answer to your KQ.

Using Evidence

Use evidence for each of your claims and your counterclaims. It will make your talk much more compelling.

Evidence can be:

-Examples of from the course or from your research. For example, stories of real scientific experiments or how society responded to a certain piece of art.

-Personal examples. Specific and realistic examples from your own life experiences are highly valued in this course. So you might tell us about something that you did in IB Biology class, or when you suspected a classmate of cheating.

Now let’s go through the structure of your presentation, slide by slide. (The suggested timings in green are assuming you’re in a group of two.)

The Structure 

Slide 1: Title Page (1 minute)

Text on this slide:
-Title of your presentation.
-Your group members’ names

What to say:
-Explain what you thought about the real life situation (RLS) when you first encountered it.
-Explain why it’s significant to you.

Slide 2: Decontextualization (1 minute)

Text on this slide:
-Some of the thoughts or questions you had about the real life situation.

What to say:
-Explain a few of the things we can know about the RLS and how we know it
-Consider the limits of what can be known about your knowledge questions (KQ)

Slide 3: Knowledge Question (1 minute)Read More

Tim WoodsHow to Structure a Theory of Knowledge Presentation

Words That Don’t Have An English Equivalent

Tim Woods TOK 4 Comments

This post is the result of the work of my Theory of Knowledge classes at the Overseas Family School. The idea here is that we want to pull into the English language some of the richness of other languages. Other languages have words that simply do not translate easily into English. These are sometimes called “untranslatable” words, but of course any word can be translated. More accurately they are words that don’t have equivalents in other languages.

Often these words show us something unique or special about a culture –they might have a word for something that people in other cultures may have never thought about. Some students also think that to fully understand these words you need to understand the culture or how people think about things a little differently in that part of the world.

Please share words that you know in your language (in the comments below), that we should (or could) start using in English. Don’t forget to provide an example. 

Unique Words from Foreign Languages

Urdu

Aap – This means ‘you’ but it is used to address someone with respect.

Danish

Hygge - When you are with friends and you light a candle or put a fire on and everyone is very congenial with each other. When no one debates things, but you just enjoy each others’ company.  

Dutch

Gezellig (HKA – zel – ah) – When you’re feeling really good with a group of friends. Guili Castillo Oriard describes “Gezellig this way, “Literally [it] means nice, cozy. But it’s also used for something that’s fun, or for good times. It implies belonging, togetherness, in ways that are much more than just fun. It also conveys a certain quaintness–sometimes” (Source). More on this word.

Russian

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Tim WoodsWords That Don’t Have An English Equivalent

Meeting The Economics IA Rubric Requirements

Tim Woods IB Economics 12 Comments

On this, the third of three posts to make sure you score full marks on your Economics Internal Assessments, I want to give you a detailed checklist you can use to check your own work.

I have included what the IB says they expect for full marks, and translated that into actionable steps.

If you do everything on the checklist your teacher will have to give you full marks.

A: Diagrams (3 marks)

IB Explanation: This criterion assesses the extent to which the student is able to construct and use diagrams.

IB Expectations: Relevant, accurate and correctly labelled diagrams are included, with a full explanation.

Checklist (to get full marks):

Drawing the diagram:

- You have fully labelled your x and y-axis (See the method here)
- You’ve chosen the most appropriate diagram (the one that best explains the theory that relates most to your case).
-You’ve used a full title (such as, “The Market for Apples in Singapore”)
-You’ve labelled all of your lines (D1, D2, S1, S2)
-You have marked all of your intersections with letters (i.e. E1, E2)
-You have shaded in and fully label the areas of the shapes on your diagram (i.e. excess demand)
-You have indicated the exact prices and quantities (or percentage changes in price or quantity if they are included in the article. (If no prices or percentage changes are mentioned,  label them Q1, Q2, P1, P2, etc.)

Explaining the diagram

-You have made sense of the diagram for the (unschooled) reader
-You have explained WHY the curves shift (etc), not just THAT they do.
-You have taken a step-by-step approach (See the method here)

B: Terminology (2 marks)

IB Explanation: This criterion assesses the extent to which the student uses appropriate economic terminology.

IB Expectations: Terminology relevant to the article is used appropriately throughout the commentary.

Checklist (to get full marks):Read More

Tim WoodsMeeting The Economics IA Rubric Requirements

How to Structure an Economics IA

Tim Woods IB Economics 41 Comments

This post will go through what you should write in your Economics IA, with step-by-step instructions and with word counts for each section.

What you need to know before you write:

1) Avoid writing anything that isn’t going to earn you marks. You’re going to need all the words you can get for your analysis and evaluation. Avoid quotes from the article and introductions longer than 2 sentences.

2) Stick with one section of the course (micro, macro, international, or development). Don’t start off in micro (apple prices rise, supply and demand, elasticity) and then evaluate the potential macro effects (this could hurt economic growth). Even if this is true, the IA is about going deep into one part of the course, rather than showing the linkages between different parts.

3) Less is (often) more. Because of the very constraining word count (750 words) you’ll want to focus on really developing just one or two (two at the most) diagrams in your IA. And only evaluate one potential solution (the one in the article or one of your choice if (and only if) there isn’t one in your article. Some of you, I know, are wondering, “What if the article mentions two solutions? Like price ceilings AND subsidies?” Answer: the International Bacheloreate Organization says you can highlight the section of the article you’re going to focus on, so just highlight one solution (and not the other) and you’re good to go. Bibliographies are not obligatory, but they’re nice. And if you include them, they won’t count against you for the word count.

Now you’re ready. Here’s the Method:

Step 1 –  Key words 

150 Words

Don’t waste words with a lengthy introduction (or quotations). Instead right away start explaining the case using at least 4 course words (and then use more later). You may want to define some of these words, but we’re definitely not looking for a list of definitions and actually definitions are not entirely required in this new syllabus. The rubric only asks for terms to be “used appropriately.” So you can get away without definitions if you are using terms in ways that show you definitely know what they mean. If you do define a word, do so only after you’ve used it in a sentence.

Also, make sure to always use the economic terms rather than the common terms for things throughout your IA. So instead of writing “money” write “consumption” or “expenditure” or “spending.” This will help to convince the reader of your familiarity with the subject.

Step 2: Draw the Diagram

0 Words

The diagram (and it’s titles, etc) do not count in your word count.

You need to diagram the problem explained in the article. And also diagram your solution. Sometimes both the problem and the solution can be shown on one diagram. Sometimes not.

Of course don’t include a diagram (or any theory at all) that doesn’t help you to explain the case.

Include in your diagram as much information as you can. It will need to:

-Use a full title such as, “The Market for Apples in Singapore”

-Label all of your lines

-Mark all of your intersections with a letter, so you can refer to them later in your article

-Shade in and fully label the areas of the shapes on your diagram (i.e. excess demand),

-Indicate the exact prices and quantities (or percentage changes in price or quantity if they are included in the article. If not, label them Q1, Q2, P1, P2, etc.

Show as much as you can in your diagrams. A clear picture can help you tell a lot. 

Obviously you will want to fully label your X and Y axis. Let’s look at a simple supply and demand curve for apples:

Step 3: Fully explain your diagram

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Tim WoodsHow to Structure an Economics IA

How to Write the Economics Internal Assessment (Getting Started)

Tim Woods IB Economics 12 Comments


The next 3 posts will provide you with a bullet-proof system for scoring full marks on your Economics Internal Assessments, following the new 2013 syllabus. The IA is a brilliant opportunity to put some marks in the bank and make that 6 or 7 in the course much easier to achieve.

This first article will focus on choosing an appropriate article.

Why does this matter?

If you choose a bad article you’ll find it like competing in the Olympic 100 meter dash wearing your granny’s high heels. It doesn’t matter how good you are. Your name might be Usain Bolt. You’re working with the wrong equipment, so you’re gonna get beat. Here, just like in your Extended Essay and so much else in life, you’ve got to make good decisions at the start of the thing to end up where you want to go.

Actually, you need to decide on the concept you want to explore BEFORE you go looking for your article. You should normally focus on one of the really major concepts like supply and demand, market failure, or aggregate supply and taxes. And once you’ve done that you’ll know what type of article you’re looking for.

Here is how to spot the perfect article for your commentary

- Of course the article can’t be written by an economist. It relates to course concepts, but doesn’t explain or understand the economic reasons behind what’s going on. It might say something like, “apples are more expensive than they were before the drought, but no one can figure out why.” So you get to come in and be a hero.

- The article relates to theories that you have covered in class. If it’s about development, but you haven’t covered development yet, save that article for a later IA and find something you’re sure you can nail.

- The article can be sufficiently explained using two related theories. For example it might be explainable using (1) supply and demand, and (2) elasticity. It isn’t always necessary that two concepts be involved in your analysis to achieve full marks, but it allows you to show how theories interrelate (and that you know more than one concept).

- Make sure the article is not from a source or a country that you have covered in a previous IA. Using several different online sources are fine. But several articles from the same news organisation (i.e. all from the BBC, or all from the New York Times) is not okay.

- The article must be published within the last 12 months. This isn’t 12 months from the start (or the end) of the course, but from the time you write that specific commentary.

- Finally, the article will be a slam-dunk, perfect example of the concept you want to discuss. You don’t want to have to waste words trying to justify why you think a certain product has negative externalities of consumption. It needs to be obvious. For example, vaccinations obviously have positive externalities of consumption. Wheat, while good for you (because if you don’t eat anything you’ll die) is a much worse choice. So you’d much rather go with the subsidising vaccinations article, if market failure is your concept of the concept of choice.

Google news is obviously a great source. Once you’ve chosen your concept you can go a long way doing simple searches like “cotton subsidy shortage,” or “vaccination price africa.” And then test the articles you find against the criteria above. It should take you too long if you know what you need. However, even if it does take you a couple of hours that’s time well spent.

The next post will lay out a step-by-step approach that get you top marks on your IA’s every time.

Tim WoodsHow to Write the Economics Internal Assessment (Getting Started)

The Theory of the Firm Rappers

Tim Woods IB Economics 1 Comment

Theory of the firm (ToF) is hard. Well, it can be. (Hey, I just noticed ToF=tough. That can’t be a coincidence). The first year I taught IB Economics, my students really struggled with the diagrams and all of the memorisation in this part of the course.

But if there’s something I love it’s taking something hard and making it easy. So I love mnemonics and finding a structure (or a system) that you can always use to get great results. That’s what this will be. This approach is the only thing that works for me.

So, while this is obviously an Economics post, you can also take this as a lesson in how to use mnemonics to pack otherwise hard-to-remember information into your brain. I read a lot of books on this subject to help my students (people like Cal Newport, Adam Robinson and Joshua Foer) and I’ve applied what I’ve learned here.

You might want to read your Theory of the Firm textbook chapters before reading this post, because this article won’t teach you the theory. That would require a very long and detailed post. Instead, what I want to do here is give you a powerful system to help you remember what most people struggle to: the 5 most important points in the theory of the firm.

First, here are the important ToF facts that most people try to memorize, but fail to, because they don’t use a system:

If a product is sold…

1) Where Marginal Revenue = 0 total, total revenue is maximized.

2) Where Marginal Cost = Average Total Cost (or, you can say, where Marginal Cost = Average Cost) productive efficiency is maximized AND the firm breaks even. (2 things to memorize there, rather than just one for each of the others).

3) Where Marginal Cost = Average Variable Cost, the firm will have to shut-down. That’s their shutdown price. Well actually it’s the minimum price a firm can sell their product for before they have to shut-down –but we call it the shutdown price anyway.

4) Where Marginal Cost = Average Revenue, social benefit (or allocative efficiency) is maximized.

5) Where Marginal Cost = Marginal Revenue, profit is maximized.

I know, I know. By now you’re wishing you’d taken History instead of Econ. But you didn’t. You, my friend, are destined for greatness, so you’re just going to have to learn this and be great.

Let me tell you about these 5 rappers (or MC’s as we used to call back in the day). Each of these MC’s sell their albums for a particular price.

The 5 MCs

Here are their names and their personalities:

Where MR=0

MR Zero doesn’t understand about costs. He just wants the biggest possible pay cheques (the most revenue). But, in the end, he doesn’t end up with a lot of profit (because revenue is not the same as profit). That might make him a big zero in your book, but doesn’t care. He just keeps smiling.

Where MC=ATC

MC Average TC is just an average guy, so he’s not rich. He just breaks even every month. He’s also in the rock group MC AC, which is known for being against waste. (I show my students this video.) The helicopter pilot on this show was named TC. He was just an average guy and I don’t recall him ever wasting anything.

 

Where MC = AVC

MC AVC (pronounced as “Havoc”). This guy is the worst! No one likes him. Every time he goes to a club they know they’re going to have to shut down (if it gets even one penny worse). That’s how bad he is.

Where MC=AR

MC AR used to be so cool. Books were written about him. That’s how cool he was. Instead of calling him AR, we call him ARal (pronounced “Harold”) or MC ARal (Harold) Potter. The “al” part of his name is because he does do what’s good for society (allocative efficiency), allocating resources in a way that society sees as the best way.

 

Where MC=MR

MC MR profit is rich. He’s clever, so he sells at the price that makes the most amount of profit possible.

So there you go

If you try to think about the diagram in terms of these rappers, their personalities and what they accomplish by selling at the price they do, you’ll find it much easier to remember what the diagrams mean. For example, you can now remember that, if you if you sell your product at the price where MC=MR, you’ll maximize profit, but not allocative efficiency (because you’re not producing at MC=AR). And you won’t maximize your revenue, despite making all that profit, because you’re not selling where MR=0).

And as a free bonus

I’m going to spare you the rest of the work I did on this post. I tried to make up a rap song about these guys to help you remember even easier, but I’m actually not a very good rapper. I know, surprising right?! I’m as shocked as you are. Anyway, you lucked out not having to hear it. Just imagine me, with a backwards ballcap rapping like, “Mr Zero’s got more cash than anyone could ever handle, Yet not as much profit as an everyday vandal.” It was bad.

Tim WoodsThe Theory of the Firm Rappers

How the Best Schools Teach

Tim Woods Health 2 Comments

“Not everything that counts can be counted and not everything
that can be counted counts” (Anonymous).

This holiday I read two new books that have really challenged my thinking about how to equip children and teenagers for success. They are: Teach Your Children Well (by Madeline Levine, 2012) and How Children Succeed (by Paul Tough, 2012).

Actually, they’ve confirmed some ideas I’ve had for a while, but haven’t really acted on. So they’ve made me feel a little guilty. I should be doing more to support the non-academic needs of students. We all should.

Here’s what you need to know.

The mistake

A lot of us (teachers, parents and students alike) act as though schools are mostly, if not entirely, there to prepare students academically. Middle schools prepare students for high school and high school is basically there to prepare students for the academic needs of college. Recently, 73% of American students surveyed affirmed this view (Balfanz) and I have taught with a lot of good teachers who would as well.

What’s wrong with that?

There are a few reasons why we need to change peoples’ mind about this. For the sake of concision, let’s look at just two (of many) arguments: why we can do more and why we must do more.

We can do more

Yes, schools do train us to be intellectuals (which is a powerful and good thing), but at their best they also prepare us more broadly to be capable adults:

-to be able to take care of ourselves,
-to work together,
-to handle complex adult social and emotional situations,
-to have healthy habits (so we can live longer, more active lives),
-to have a social-conscience,
-and on and on.

Hard to argue with right?

Few would dispute the importance of these skills and yet, when the pressure is on (when exams are just around the corner), we can overlook these valuable aims. And let’s be honest: exams are ALWAYS just around the corner. So we often (myself included) can get caught up in focusing on the academic priorities (test and exam prep) and keep wellness and soft-skill capability-development perpetually on the back burner.

Why is this?

One of the most powerful maxims in business is: “What gets measured gets done.” If no one ever keeps track of whether you show up for work or not, you probably won’t show up for work. Similarly in schools, we might all agree that eating well and stress-management are important and yet many schools don’t measure whether students are gaining these (wellness-related) skills. As a result, many students graduate without developing them.

We must do more

If you aren’t already convinced, let’s look at a few facts about mental health (just one part of wellness). In an average class of 25 students, 5 show symptoms of a mental disorder, and 2 or 3 (2.5) suffer from “mental illness severe enough to result in significant functional impairment” (NIMH). Similarly, while students have historically “cited either family discord or peer problems as being their greatest source of stress, school is now identified as the number one stressor in their lives” (Kids and Stress). So, mental illness should be something they learn about and develop strategies to cope with.

Where to go from here

I think where we need to start is asserting a broader role for schools. We need to challenge those who will try to claim that schools are not the place for teaching about emotional wellbeing, for example. And we should try to change their mind. And then we can look for small ways to encourage wellness education. For example, teachers can incorporate wellness (theory) in lessons and the development of good habits (practice), for example in what students eat at lunch time. And students can choose presentation topics that include aspects of wellness (i.e on positive psychology, or nutrition) and share insights with their peers.

(For my part, I will be running a club at OFS this semester called Health Leadership, to help students who want to make a difference in this area at our school and/or in Singapore more broadly).

Sources

I would like to thank my wife Bettina for buying these books for me and helping me a lot with this article. She is currently completing her Master’s of Education thesis, exploring wellness-related physical education interventions. So she’s teaching me a lot. (As per usual).

Balfanz, Robert. Can the American High School Become an Avenue of Advancement for All? p.1) (Here’s a link)

“Kids and Stress, How Do They Handle It?” KidsHealth KidsPoll, October, 12, 2005. The National Association of Health Education Centers database. From Levine xv.

“The NIMH Blueprint for Change Report,” Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health, National Institute of Mental Health, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 41, no.7 (July 2002) p 760-66. From Levine xv.

Tim WoodsHow the Best Schools Teach

How to Make Your Good Extended Essay Great

Tim Woods IB Business, IB Economics 5 Comments

If you are a regular reader of this blog, you’ll know I’m all about finding systems and structures to make challenging things less challenging. Or, to put it more simply, I like to do things the easy way. To that end, I want to show you how to make a few tweaks to your average extended essay and earn top marks for it. The following are some advanced techniques that many International Baccalaureate (IB) extended essay supervisors might forget to share. And many aren’t aware of them.

Before reading this blog post, I suggest reading my post on getting started with your extended essay. That article explains how to choose a good essay question, among other things.

This article is about advanced techniques, the polish that can raise your grades (to a high B or an A). But if your foundation is off no amount of polishing is going to be enough. So again, make sure you get off to a good start.

1) Doubt Your Sources

By now your Extended Essay contains the best sources that you could get your hands on. You’ve used them to analyze and draw conclusions. You’re satisfied with them. But you shouldn’t be.

Even though you included the best information you could find (and you don’t want to look lazy) you should be the one (rather than your Extended Essay grader) to point out the weaknesses in your research.

This defies common sense, but do it anyway. You might think this is rather like going to a job interview and pointing out why you’re a bad employee, but it’s not like that at all. Pointing out the weaknesses in your research shows that you know how to improve next time (which impresses us) and it shows that you’re taking an academic approach (you are able to be objective) rather than a self-conscious approach. Weaker students, students that haven’t put in my effort into their work, won’t want to do this because they know there are tons of weaknesses in their research. But if you’ve done a reasonable amount of work, using primary and secondary sources, it only helps you to be critical.

To help you with this, there is a great checklist you can use called Test Before You Trust (link here) to help you ask important questions about your sources (i.e. Is the site free of advertising? Is the site one-sided or balanced). You can use the questions as prompts for your Extended Essay writing.

For example, Question 14 asks, “Are sources given for statistics?” If you answer no, you can write in your Extended Essay something like, “Article X was written in an academic way and it was available on a site that was free of advertising and therefore perhaps less likely to be biased. However, the article did not provide the sources or raw data they used to calculate their statistics. So it is not possible to verify their accuracy.” See?

2) Dip your toe into real academic stuff

Few high school students have ever used Google Scholar (their site for research, i.e. from university professors in your subject). Why? Because it can be boring. I’ll give you that. However, it is very, VERY impressive when high school students can read and understand and explain aspects of real academic articles. So try to find just one that relates to your Extended Essay, print it out, take a couple of hours with Dictionary.com, Wikipedia, and Google and try to figure out what the article’s talking about. And (intelligently) use a couple of quotes from it in your Extended Essay. It’s perhaps worth asking your parents or an older sibling to help you track down this article, because finding one that directly relates to your Extended Essay can be the hardest part (because you don’t yet know the meaning of all of the related key words).

This might seem like a lot of work, but it sends a strong signal to your marker that you’re as serious as any university student.

3) Use a proxy

When you hear the word “proxy” you might think of VPN’s (Virtual Private Networks) that let you surf the web more freely. Proxy sources similarly allow you to research a bit more freely.

Let’s say your Extended Essay is about the launch of a new organic lettuce in Singapore. You’ve looked around and there isn’t any data about lettuce in Singapore at all. In this case, an example of proxy research would be if you could find research on the sales of organic cucumbers. You can simply point out that no info on lettuce was available, and that you’ve made an assumption that the market for both items is similar. And then you can go on to make all kinds of insights into the market for lettuce, using the cucumber data.

Proxies can be used (but rarely are actually used) in most Extended Essay’s. Even if you were able to find a lot of data, there is probably a way to use a proxy to strengthen your analysis.

4) Become an expert on the Extended Essay criteria

This one is self-explanatory. Just like on all of your exams, if you want to earn the top marks, you need to get into the head of the examiners.

-What impresses them?
-What are they actually giving marks for?
-Is it possible you (and your supervisor) have overlooked (or misinterpreted) one of the criteria?
-Could you tweak one of your sections (i.e. your conclusion) to make sure you’re going to get full marks for it?

Talk to your friends and parents and teachers and your turtle about this.

In reality, different examiners are going to have slightly different interpretations of the criteria. So if you really want the grade be as safe as possible. Read the criteria a few times, looking for key words that some examiners might focus on and adjust your writing so it would satisfy any marker. (That’s easy for me to say. Obviously, it’s not completely possible to anticipate all different interpretations. So just do a little of this and then go back to enjoying your life.)

5) Edit, Edit, Edit

I’m about to recommend something shocking. Ready? Ok. “You’re going to have to read your extended essay.” I’m sorry. I know it’s really long. Every year I read Extended Essay’s that are just horrible. They don’t make any sense. They say the same thing over and over again. They bring tears to my eyes and not in a good way my friend.

As you read your Extended Essay take a pen to it and mark it up like you were me.

-Find grammar and spelling mistakes.
-Cross out superfluous writing.  Could you say the same thing in fewer words? Yes. This is always true of your writing. And for mine.  Start by deleting most of your introduction, for example. And then look for times when you say things you’ve already said before.
-Look for times when you used sources (even when it’s not for a quotation) but you haven’t cited it.
-You know what I’m saying here. Mark it like your teacher would mark it.

Don’t think that this is your teacher’s job to do this for you. In this case it’s really not. We can’t give you line-by-line advice. Just general feedback.

And even if you’re lucky enough to have a teacher who will give you a lot of feedback, you’re wasting their time and yours. It’s much better to hand in a well-written, edited piece of work so your teacher can focus on helping you with the smart (rather than the silly) mistakes you’ve made.

6) Read two Extended Essays that are better than yours

Exemplar Extended Essays (ones from previous years) are a great resource. You’d be crazy to not avail yourself of these. Look for anything they’ve done well that you could emulate. For example, have they structured their work in a clever way? Does their conclusion tie together the mini-conclusions they’ve made throughout the essay?

And that’s it dude. You’re done.

Thanks to Brett Bowman, the Extended Essay Coordinator @ OFS for his insights into understanding the limitations of different sources.

Tim WoodsHow to Make Your Good Extended Essay Great

How to Change Your Habits in Three Simple Steps

Tim Woods Goals, Health, Life 3 Comments

“We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit” (Aristotle).

A lot of what we do every day is habitual. Obviously, some of our habits are good and some aren’t, but they all work in the same way.

Think of how powerful it would be if you did the things you knew you should: If you didn’t procrastinate; if you did you got in the habit of getting ahead in your homework, if you always asked questions in class; if you did extra questions from the textbook.

A lot of times we see our habits as something we simply have to deal with, something we have or don’t have, a result of undisciplined childhood.  But changing habits isn’t so hard when you understand how they work. I just finished Charles Duhigg’s book The Power of Habit, which explains the psychology and social science behind habits and outlines the simple, three step process involved in all habit.

Let’s take one of Duhigg’s examples: alcoholics anonymous. The famous 12 step program Alcoholics Anonymous uses doesn’t rely on therapies or scientific treatments, but rather on uncovering the individual reasons why people drink and dealing with them differently. For one person they might drink because they’re lonely, so that person will learn to hang out with people in an alcohol free environment, thereby getting their social-fix without the drink. AA gives these people a the support they need to understand themselves better and change their habits in a structured way.

Basically, every habit has 3 parts: the Trigger, the Activity and the Payoff. (T.A.P.)

Removing Bad Habits

Let’s say you want to stop eating junk food in the evening. You already know the middle part (the Activity) that you want to stop, but you’ll need to investigate to figure out the first part (the Trigger) and third part (the Payoff).

The Trigger is the situation that gets you doing the habitual activity. What happens when you start snacking? Maybe you do it when you’re nervous.  You start thinking about the next day’s activities. Or maybe you do it when you’re bored. It could be anything.

The Payoff is the reward you get when you’re done. One person who eats too much junk food (habitually) might like the taste in their mouth, so that’s their payoff. But another person might do it because they like the feeling of being really full in their stomach or they might enjoy keeping their hands busy.

Once you’ve identified your unique Triggers and Payoffs, you’ll want to modify the behavior (eat carrots when you’re watching TV after dinner) and give yourself a similar Payoff. If you used to enjoy the feeling of being full carrots will work just as well. If it was the sweet taste, perhaps carrots and then a sugar-free candy at the end.

Getting a new good habit

To get yourself doing a new habitual activity, we use the trigger-activity-payoff process again. We’re going to build a new activity and payoff, building on a trigger that’s already there.

Let’s say you want to do your homework right away in the afternoon.

For the Trigger you would choose something like walking in the front door, something you know is going to happen every day. As soon as you get in the door and take off your shoes you’ll also take your books out, put them on the desk and sit down to your homework (the activity).

And for The Payoff you’ll have to give yourself something you actually want, like an hour or 2 of guilt-free television or a healthy milkshake. Make sure the Payoff is something you’ll enjoy and something you can give yourself every time.

If you do this for 14 to 21 days you’ll find it becomes your new normal. You’ll be a little bit more successful and a bit more like a robot.

 

–You might enjoy this related article on writing New Year’s Resolutions.

Tim WoodsHow to Change Your Habits in Three Simple Steps